How to Make It
Pulse all-purpose flour, butter, sugar, semolina flour, egg yolks, salt, and baking powder in a food processor until combined, about 20 times. Turn mixture out onto a clean work surface. (Mixture will be sandy.) Divide in half, and pat evenly into 2 disks; wrap each tightly in plastic wrap. Refrigerate until firm, about 2 hours.
Stir together sugar, semolina flour, all-purpose flour, and salt in a medium saucepan until combined. Gradually whisk in milk, cream, and egg yolks until well combined. Cook over medium-high, whisking constantly, until thickened, 8 to 10 minutes. Remove from heat; whisk in orange liqueur. Pour mixture into a heatproof bowl; press plastic wrap directly on surface of pastry cream. Refrigerate until chilled, about 2 hours.
Stir together cherries, sugar, and orange zest in a medium saucepan. Stir together juice and cornstarch in a small bowl until smooth. Stir orange juice mixture into cherry mixture in saucepan. Bring to a boil over medium-high; boil, stirring constantly, until thickened and reduced to 1 1/2 cups, about 15 minutes. Remove from heat. Let stand at room temperature until completely cool, at least 1 hour or up to 4 hours.
Preheat oven to 325°F. Remove chilled pastry disks from refrigerator; let stand at room temperature until soft enough to roll out, about 30 minutes.
Butter a 9-inch deep-dish tart pan with a removable bottom or a 9-inch springform pan; place on a large rimmed baking sheet. Unwrap 1 softened pastry disk, and roll between 2 sheets of parchment paper into a 13-inch circle. Remove top sheet of parchment paper; carefully invert dough over prepared tart pan. Press dough into bottom and up sides of pan; trim any excess, and use to patch cracks. Line inside with a sheet of parchment paper, leaving a 3- to 4-inch overhang over pan edge. Fill with pie weights. Bake on baking sheet in preheated oven 18 minutes. Carefully remove parchment paper and pie weights. Return to oven on baking sheet; bake at 325°F 5 minutes. Remove from oven; let cool completely on baking sheet, about 20 minutes. Increase oven temperature to 350°F.
Spread half of the chilled pastry cream (about 2 1/2 cups) inside cooled pastry shell. Spread pastry cream with 1 cup cooled cherry jam. Spread jam with remaining pastry cream.
Unwrap remaining softened pastry disk, and roll between 2 sheets of parchment paper into a 10-inch circle. Remove top sheet of parchment; carefully invert dough over pastry filling. Press dough edges together to seal; trim any excess. Brush top of dough with egg yolk; cut 8 (1/2-inch) slits in top of dough.
Bake tart on baking sheet at 350°F until golden brown, 32 to 38 minutes. Let cool at room temperature on baking sheet 30 minutes. Transfer on baking sheet to refrigerator; let cool completely, at least 8 hours or up to 12 hours. If using a tart pan, carefully invert tart onto a baking sheet, and use a small offset spatula to loosen. Remove pan, and carefully invert tart onto a serving platter. If using a springform pan, carefully run a small offset spatula around edge to loosen before releasing sides of pan. Keep chilled until ready to serve.
To serve, top with additional cherries from cherry jam, if desired.
Store leftover cherry jam in refrigerator, covered, up to 2 days. Substitute store-bought sour cherry preserves in a pinch.